Design Guidance, Knowledge Base,
Case Histories and References, Software Approvals
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Design Guidance 
       Limit State design:       The use of WALLAP in the context of Eurocode 7

       Integral Bridge design: The use of WALLAP for modelling Soil Ratcheting
                                            behind Integral Bridge abutments in accordance
                                            with PD6694:1

Knowledge Base and worked examples 

Case Histories and References 

Software Approvals 

                                                                 See also  User Guides and Context Sensitive Help

Design Guidance 

The use of WALLAP in the Context of Eurocode 7
This document provides detailed advice on the use of the Limit State Analysis options in WALLAP and the selection and combination of partial factors of safety to comply with EC7. It can be viewed here EC7_WALLAP.pdf

The use of WALLAP for modelling Soil Ratcheting behind Integral Bridge abutments in accordance with PD6694:1
This document describes the implementation of the provisions of PD6694:1 in WALLAP. It can be downloaded here PD6694_WALLAP.chm as a zip file.

Knowledge Base  The Knowledge Base is a set of worked examples and explanations. It is a new feature in WALLAP version 6.07 to be released in October 2020. It is accessed via the File menu and replaces the previous "Example data files". Click File/Knowledge Base and browse to select a topic and a data file.
Each example illustrates and explains one of the following :
       A feature of the data or analysis options,
       How to model a special situation,
       Interpretation of results,
       A theoretical aspect of the calculation.
       A case history.
An example consists of one or more data files with a linked Notes file which explains the purpose and theory of the example. You can search the Knowledge Base with key words to find topics of particular interest e.g. "berm" or "rotational restraint"

Knowledge Base data and notes files are bundled together with the forthcoming software  updates


Case Histories and References
The following references are mentioned in the WALLAP Help System and User Guide. Most of them concern the theoretical basis of WALLAP calculations.
The important papers by Stroud concern the derivation of Young's modulus from penetration tests.
The paper by Woodward reports a case history in which comparitive calculations were carried out by FLAC and WALLAP.
Click the links to download extracts from these references.
Biot M.A. (1937) Bending of an Infinite Beam on an Elastic Foundation
Journal of Applied Mechanics. Trans. ASME 59(203), 1-7 (1937).
Formula for checking 2DFE analysis of a line load on a wall
Bowles J.E. (1982) Foundation analysis and design. 3rd edition. Mc-Graw Hill.
Quotes Steinbrenner's formula for displacement of a rectangular load on an elastic half space.
Broms B. (1964) Extracts from: ASCE Journal, Vol.90 SM2 and SM3 1964
Lateral resistance of piles in cohesive soils.
Lateral resistance of piles in cohesionless soils.
Burland, J.B., B.Simpson and H.D.StJohn (1979) Movements around excavations in London Clay.
7th European Conference on SMFE. Vol.1
(Derivation of Ko in heavily over-consolidated clay as a function of stress history)
Butler, F.G. (1975) Review paper: Heavily overconsolidated soils.
Conference on Settlement of Structures (April 1974). British Geotechnical Society.
Calculation of settlement using Steinbrenner's formula adapted for modulus
increasing linearly with depth
Kramer, Steven L. (1996) Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall.
Quasi-static and Pseudo-dynamic Design Methods
Mononobe and Okabe Earthquake Earth Pressures in Cohesionless Soil.
Quoted in New Zealand Ministry of Works and Development
Retaining Wall Design Notes (1973). Guidance on Seismic Design.
Pappin, J.W., B.Simpson, P.J.Felton and C.Raison (1986) Numerical analysis of flexible retaining walls.
Midland Geotechnical Society. Symposium on Computer Applications in Geotechnical Engineering.
Algorithm for calculating Arching active pressures.
Steinbrenner, W. (1934) Tafeln zur Setzungsberechnung. Die Strasse, Vol. 1, October, pp.121-124.
Steinbrenner's formula for displacement of a rectangular load on an elastic half space.
Stroud, M.A. (1988) Standard Penetration Test - Application and Interpretation.
Introduction to Papers 1-9. Part 2.
Penetration testing in the UK: Proceedings of the Geotechnology Conference
Organized by the Institution of Civil Engineers. Birmingham July 1988.
Modulus SPT correlation
Stroud, M.A. and F.G.Butler (1975) The Standard Penetration Test and the Engineering Properties of Glacial Materials
Proc. Symposium on the Engineering Behaviour of Glacial Materials
University of Birmingham.
Modulus to SPT ratio as a function of Plasticity Index
Woodward M.A. (1998) Design and performance of a temporary anchored soldier pile wall,
3rd Car Dumper Pit, BHP Iron Ore Facility, Nelson Point, Port Hedland.
Australian Geomechanics Number 33, Part 3 December 1998 pp.41-50.
Comparison of WALLAP and FLAC analyses

Software Approval
Approval of WALLAP by the Hong Kong Buildings Department

WALLAP has in the past been on the list of software which received "Prior Approval". We are in the process of applying to renew this approval.
Hong Kong Buildings Dept. - WALLAP approval.

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